AB-PINACA crystal is a compound that was first identified as a component of synthetic cannabis products in Japan in 2012.
It was originally developed by Pfizer in 2009 as an analgesic medication.
AB-PINACA acts as a potent agonist for the CB1 receptor (Ki = 2.87 nM, EC50 = 1.2 nM) and CB2 receptor (Ki = 0.88 nM, EC50 = 2.5 nM) and fully substitutes for ?9-THC in rat discrimination studies, while being 1.5x more potent.
There have been a number of reported cases of deaths and hospitalizations in relation to this synthetic cannabinoid.
AB-PINACA is a synthetic cannabinoid usually sold as a herbal smoking mixture designed to mimic THC, the active chemical of cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoids are classed as New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) which are unregulated substances that have become newly available on the market as an alternative to illegal drugs. As a reaction to prohibition, synthetic cannabinoid producers change the compounds found in designer drugs and create new generations of synthetic drugs, such as AB-PINACA. As a result, accidental overdose and severe psychiatric complications may be more likely to occur because the type and amount of active compound may vary considerably from batch to batch. Other effects may include agitation, rapid heart rate, confusion, dizziness and nausea.
A potent CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist, AB-PINACA crystal is a member of the aminoalkylindazole class of synthetic cannabinoids. According to the NFLIS 2014 midyear report, AB-PINACA crystal accounted for 11% of all synthetic cannabinoid drug reports in the United States during the first half of 2014. This certified reference solution is suited for use in synthetic cannabinoid testing methods by LC/MS or GC/MS for applications in clinical toxicology, urine drug testing, and forensic analysis.
*Statement on Forensic Use Products
Forensic Use Only devices are intended for use only in drugs of abuse testing for law enforcement purposes.
Appropriate users of such devices include, for example, court systems, police departments, probation/parole offices, juvenile detention centers, prisons, jails, correction centers and other similar law enforcement entities, or laboratories or other establishments performing forensic testing for these entities.
Forensic Use Only devices are not designed, tested, developed, or labeled for use in other settings, such as clinical diagnostic or workplace settings.
The CEDIA® AB-PINACA assay is intended for the qualitative and semi-quantitative detection and estimation of the parent compound and metabolites of AB-PINACA crystal, AB-CHMINACA, and AB-FUBINACA in human urine at a cutoff of 20 ng/mL. The assay is intended to be used in laboratories and provides a simple and rapid analytical screen to detect AB-PINACA crystal-related synthetic cannabinoids compounds and metabolites in human urine. The semi-quantitative mode is for detection and for the purpose of enabling laboratories to determine an appropriate dilution of the specimen for confirmation by a confirmatory method such as Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or permitting laboratories to establish quality control procedures. Clinical and professional judgment should be applied to any drug of abuse test result, particularly when preliminary positive results are used. For Criminal Justice and Forensic Use Only.
Twelve mice (n = 4 per drug) were given intraperitoneal injections of 3 mg/kg AB-PINACA, 3 mg/kg AB-CHMINACA, or 100 mg/kg FUBIMINA. Immediately following injections, the mice were placed into metabolism cages and urine was collected over a 24-hour period. Urine from mice dosed with the same compound was pooled for analysis. Samples were extracted using a salting-out liquid-liquid extraction method prior to analysis. Acetonitrile (200 µl) was added to 100 µL urine, and then the samples were vortexed and 50 µl 5 M ammonium acetate was added as a salting out agent. Samples were vortexed and centrifuged at 10,000 rcf for 5 minutes. The top aqueous layer was removed and dried down at 40°C and reconstituted with 50 µl mobile phase A.
Psychoactive cannabinoid agonists produce a characteristic profile of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including binding to and activating CB1 receptors, dose-dependent activity in a tetrad battery of tests in mice, and ?9-THClike discriminative stimulus effects (Wiley and Martin, 2009).